Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI)

Publications

Our publication policies can be downloaded here:
CKD-EPI GFR
CKD-EPI CT

Key CKD-EPI publications are listed below:

GFR estimating equations 

  1. Diao JA, Inker LA, Levey AS, Tighiouart H, et al.  “In search of a better equation—performance and equity in estimates of kidney function.” The New England journal of medicine. 2021 Feb 4;384(5):396. PMID: 33406354
  2. Inker LA, et al CKD-EPI GFR Collaborators. "A New Panel-Estimated GFR, Including β2-Microglobulin and β-Trace Protein and Not Including Race, Developed in a Diverse Population." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 77.5 (2021): 673-683.
  3. Levey AS, et al. “Measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate: current status and future directions.” Nat Rev Nephrol. 2020 Jan;16(1):51-64.
  4. Titan, S, et al. "Performance of indexed and nonindexed estimated GFR." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 76.3 (2020): 446-449.
  5. Chang, AR, et al. "Performance of glomerular filtration rate estimating equations before and after bariatric surgery." Kidney Medicine 2.6 (2020): 699-706.
  6. Levey, AS, et al “Estimation of glomerular filtration rate with and without race” JAMA Internal Medicine (2020)180(5):793-795
  7. Levey, AS., et al. "Kidney disease, race, and GFR estimation." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology (2020).
  8. Fan, L, et al. "Estimating total small solute clearance in patients treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis without urine and dialysate collection." Peritoneal Dialysis International 40.1 (2020): 84-92. PMID: 32063147
  9. Coresh, J, et al. "Metabolomic profiling to improve glomerular filtration rate estimation: a proof-of-concept study." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 34.5 (2019): 825-833. PMID: 29718360.
  10. Steubl, D, et al. "Development and Validation of Residual Kidney Function Estimating Equations in Dialysis Patients." Kidney Medicine 1.3 (2019): 104-114. 
  11. Freed, TA., et al. "Validation of a metabolite panel for a more accurate estimation of glomerular filtration rate using quantitative LC-MS/MS." Clinical chemistry 65.3 (2019): 406-418. PMID: 30647123
  12. Shafi, T, and Levey, AS. "Measurement and estimation of residual kidney function in patients on dialysis." Advances in chronic kidney disease 25.1 (2018): 93-104. PMID: 29499893.
  13. Inker LA, Levey AS, and Coresh J. “Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate from a Panel of Filtration Markers- Hope for Increased Accuracy Beyond Measured Glomerular Filtration Rate?” Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease 25, no. 1 (2018): 67-75.
  14. Wang, E, et al. "Imprecise Kidney Function Thresholds in Cancer Clinical Trials and the Potential for Harm." JNCI cancer spectrum 2.4 (2018): pky060. PMID:31360878
  15. Beumer, JH., Inker, LA, and Levey, AS. "Improving carboplatin dosing based on estimated GFR." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 71.2 (2018): 163-165. PMID: 29217306
  16. Levey, AS., and Inker, LA. "Assessment of glomerular filtration rate in health and disease: a state of the art review." Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 102.3 (2017): 405-419. PMID: 28474735
  17. Levey, AS., and Inker, LA. "GFR evaluation in living kidney donor candidates." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 28.4 (2017): 1062-1071. PMID: 28298325
  18. Foster, MC, et al. "Non-GFR determinants of low-molecular-weight serum protein filtration markers in the elderly: AGES-Kidney and MESA-Kidney." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 70.3 (2017): 406-414. PMID:28549536
  19. Inker, LA., et al. "Filtration markers as predictors of ESRD and mortality: individual participant data meta-analysis." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 12.1 (2017): 69-78. PMID: 28062677
  20. Rebholz, CM., et al. "Risk of ESRD and mortality associated with change in filtration markers." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 70.4 (2017): 551-560.PMID: 28648303
  21. Shafi, Tariq, et al. "Estimating residual kidney function in dialysis patients without urine collection." Kidney international 89.5 (2016): 1099-1110. 
  22. Sekula, P, et al. "A metabolome-wide association study of kidney function and disease in the general population." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 27.4 (2016): 1175-1188. PMID: 26449609
  23. Huang N, et al. “Estimated GFR for living kidney donor evaluation.” American Journal of Transplantation 16.1 (2016): 171-180. PMID: 26594819
  24. Liu, X, et al. "Non-GFR determinants of low-molecular-weight serum protein filtration markers in CKD." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 68.6 (2016): 892-900. PMID: 27663042
  25. Inker, LA., et al. "GFR estimation using β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin in CKD." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 67.1 (2016): 40-48. PMID: 26362696
  26. Fan, L, et al. "Comparing GFR estimating equations using cystatin C and creatinine in elderly individuals." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 26.8 (2015): 1982-1989.PMID: 25527647
  27. Eckfeldt, JH, et al. "Performance in measurement of serum cystatin C by laboratories participating in the College of American Pathologists 2014 CYS survey." Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 139.7 (2015): 888-893. PMID: 25884370
  28. Levey AS, Inker LA, and Coresh J. "GFR estimation: from physiology to public health." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 63.5 (2014): 820-834.
  29. Shaffi, K, et al. "Performance of creatinine-based GFR estimating equations in solid-organ transplant recipients." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 63.6 (2014): 1007-1018. PMID: 24703720 
  30. Fan, Li, et al. "Glomerular filtration rate estimation using cystatin C alone or combined with creatinine as a confirmatory test." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 29.6 (2014): 1195-1203. PMID: 24449101
  31. Okparavero, AA., et al. "Use of glomerular filtration rate estimating equations for drug dosing in HIV-positive patients." Antiviral therapy 18.6 (2013): 793. PMID: 23963249
  32. Selvin, E, et al. "Calibration of cystatin C in the national health and nutrition examination surveys (NHANES)." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 61.2 (2013): 353-354.PMID: 23177702
  33. Juraschek, SP., et al. "The effects of freeze–thaw on β-trace protein and β2-microglobulin assays after long-term sample storage." Clinical biochemistry 45.9 (2012): 694-696. PMID: 22425605
  34. Inker, LA., et al. "Performance of creatinine and cystatin C GFR estimating equations in an HIV-positive population on antiretrovirals." Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999) 61.3 (2012): 302. PMID: 22842844
  35. Padala, S, et al. "Accuracy of a GFR estimating equation over time in people with a wide range of kidney function." American journal of kidney diseases 60.2 (2012): 217-224.PMID: 22495467
  36. Inker, LA., et al. "Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C." New England Journal of Medicine 367.1 (2012): 20-29. PMID: 22762315
  37. Inker, LA., and Okparavero, A. "Cystatin C as a marker of glomerular filtration rate: prospects and limitations." Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 20.6 (2011): 631-639. PMID: 21926620.
  38. Inker, LA., et al. "Expressing the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) cystatin C equations for estimating GFR with standardized serum cystatin C values." American journal of kidney diseases 58.4 (2011): 682-684. PMID: 21855190
  39. Tangri, N, et al. "Changes in dietary protein intake has no effect on serum cystatin C levels independent of the glomerular filtration rate." Kidney international 79.4 (2011): 471-477. PMID: 20980977
  40. Stevens, LA, et al. "Evaluation of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in multiple ethnicities." Kidney international 79.5 (2011): 555-562.PMID: 21107446
  41. Ix, JH, et al. "Equations to estimate creatinine excretion rate: the CKD epidemiology collaboration." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 6.1 (2011): 184-191.PMID: 20966119
  42. Levey, AS, and Kramer H. "Obesity, glomerular hyperfiltration, and the surface area correction." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 56.2 (2010): 255-258. 
  43. Levey, AS., and Stevens, AS. "Estimating GFR using the CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) creatinine equation: more accurate GFR estimates, lower CKD prevalence estimates, and better risk predictions." American journal of kidney diseases. 55.4 (2010): 622.PMID: 20338463
  44. Stevens, LA, et al. "Comparative performance of the CKD Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equations for estimating GFR levels above 60 mL/min/1.73 m2." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 56.3 (2010): 486-495.PMID: 20557989
  45. Stevens, LA, et al. "Development and validation of GFR-estimating equations using diabetes, transplant and weight." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 25.2 (2010): 449-457.PMID: 19793928
  46. Levey, AS, et al. "A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate." Annals of internal medicine 150.9 (2009): 604-612. PMID: 19414839
  47. Stevens, LA, et al. "Comparison of drug dosing recommendations based on measured GFR and kidney function estimating equations." American journal of kidney diseases 54.1 (2009): 33-42.PMID: 19446939
  48. Stevens, LA., and Levey, AS. "Use of the MDRD study equation to estimate kidney function for drug dosing." Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics 86.5 (2009): 465-467.PMID: 19844220
  49. Stevens, LA., et al. "Factors other than glomerular filtration rate affect serum cystatin C levels." Kidney international 75.6 (2009): 652-660. PMID: 19119287
  50. Stevens, LA., et al. "Estimating GFR using serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine: a pooled analysis of 3,418 individuals with CKD." American journal of kidney diseases 51.3 (2008): 395-406. PMID: 18295055
  51. Jones, CY, et al. "Cystatin C and creatinine in an HIV cohort: the nutrition for healthy living study." American journal of kidney diseases 51.6 (2008): 914-924. PMID: 18455851
  52. Köttgen, A, et al. "Serum cystatin C in the united states: The third national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES III)." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 51.3 (2008): 385-394. PMID: 18295054.
  53. Coresh, J, and Auguste, P. "Reliability of GFR formulas based on serum creatinine, with special reference to the MDRD Study equation." Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation 68.sup241 (2008): 30-38. PMID: 18569962
  54. Stevens, LA., and Stoycheff, N. "Standardization of serum creatinine and estimated GFR in the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP)." American journal of kidney diseases 51.4 (2008): S77-S82. PMID: 18359411.
  55. Stevens, LA., et al. "Impact of creatinine calibration on performance of GFR estimating equations in a pooled individual patient database." American journal of kidney diseases 50.1 (2007): 21-35. PMID: 17591522.
  56. Stevens, LA, et al. "Evaluation of the modification of diet in renal disease study equation in a large diverse population." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 18.10 (2007): 2749-2757.PMID: 17855641
  57. Selvin, E, et al. "Calibration of serum creatinine in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1988-1994, 1999-2004." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 50.6 (2007): 918-926. PMID: 18037092.
  58. Levey AS, et al. “Expressing the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate with standardized serum creatinine values” ClinChem 53 (2007): 766-772. PMID: 17332152.
  59. Levey, AS, et al. "Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate." Annals of internal medicine 145.4 (2006): 247-254. PMID: 16908915.
  60. Madero, M, Sarnak, MJ and Stevens, LA. "Serum cystatin C as a marker of glomerular filtration rate." Current opinion in nephrology and hypertension 15.6 (2006): 610-616. PMID: 17053476.
  61. Stevens LA, et al. “Assessing kidney function – measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate.” New England Journal of Medicine 354, no. 23 (2006): 2473-83.
  62. Stevens, LA., and Levey, AS. "Chronic kidney disease in the elderly—how to assess risk." New England Journal of Medicine (2005): 2122-2124.  PMID: 15901867
  63. Murthy, K, et al. "Variation in the serum creatinine assay calibration: a practical application to glomerular filtration rate estimation." Kidney international 68.4 (2005): 1884-1887. PMID: 16164667.

Surrogate endpoints

  1. Levey AS, et al. “Change in Albuminuria and GFR as End Points for Clinical Trials in Early Stages of CKD: A Scientific Workshop Sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation in Collaboration With the US Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency.” American Journal of Kidney Diseases Jan;75(1) (2020): 84-104. PMID: 31473020
  2. Coresh, J, et al. "Change in albuminuria and subsequent risk of end-stage kidney disease: an individual participant-level consortium meta-analysis of observational studies." The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology 7.2 (2019): 115-127. PMID: 30635225
  3. Heerspink, H JL, et al. "Change in albuminuria as a surrogate endpoint for progression of kidney disease: a meta-analysis of treatment effects in randomised clinical trials." The lancet Diabetes & endocrinology 7.2 (2019): 128-139. PMID: 30635226
  4. Thompson, A, et al. "Proteinuria reduction as a surrogate end point in trials of IgA nephropathy." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 14.3 (2019): 469-481. PMID: 30635299
  5. Greene, T, et al. "Performance of GFR slope as a surrogate end point for kidney disease progression in clinical trials: a statistical simulation." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 30.9 (2019): 1756-1769. PMID:31292198
  6. Grams, ME., et al. "Evaluating glomerular filtration rate slope as a surrogate end point for ESKD in clinical trials: an individual participant meta-analysis of observational data." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 30.9 (2019): 1746-1755. PMID: 31292199
  7. Vonesh, E, et al. "Mixed‐effects models for slope‐based endpoints in clinical trials of chronic kidney disease." Statistics in medicine 38.22 (2019): 4218-4239. PMID: 31338848
  8. Inker, LA, et al. "GFR slope as a surrogate end point for kidney disease progression in clinical trials: a meta-analysis of treatment effects of randomized controlled trials." Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 30.9 (2019): 1735-1745. PMID:31292197
  9. Inker, LA., et al. "Early change in urine protein as a surrogate end point in studies of IgA nephropathy: an individual-patient meta-analysis." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 68.3 (2016): 392-401.
  10. Levey AS, Becker C, and Inker LA. “Glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria for detection and staging of acute and chronic kidney disease in adults: a systematic review.” JAMA. 313.8 (2015): 837-846. PMID: 25710660.
  11. Levey, AS., et al. "GFR decline as an end point for clinical trials in CKD: a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 64.6 (2014): 821-835. PMID 25441437.
  12. Inker, A., et al. "Early change in proteinuria as a surrogate end point for kidney disease progression: an individual patient meta-analysis." American journal of kidney diseases 64.1 (2014): 74-85. PMID: 27032886
  13. Greene, T, et al. "Utility and validity of estimated GFR–based surrogate time-to-event end points in CKD: a simulation study." American journal of kidney diseases 64.6 (2014): 867-879. PMID: 25441440.
  14. Heerspink, HJL., et al. "Estimated GFR decline as a surrogate end point for kidney failure: a post hoc analysis from the Reduction of End Points in Non–Insulin-Dependent Diabetes With the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan (RENAAL) study and Irbesartan Diabetic Nephropathy Trial (IDNT)." American journal of kidney diseases 63.2 (2014): 244-250. PMID: 24210590.
  15. Coresh, J, et al. "Decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate and subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality." JAMA 311.24 (2014): 2518-2531.
  16. Inker, LA., et al. "GFR decline as an alternative end point to kidney failure in clinical trials: a meta-analysis of treatment effects from 37 randomized trials." American journal of kidney diseases 64.6 (2014): 848-859. PMID: 25441438.
  17. Heerspink, HJL, et al. "GFR decline and subsequent risk of established kidney outcomes: a meta-analysis of 37 randomized controlled trials." American journal of kidney diseases 64.6 (2014): 860-866. PMID: 25441439
  18. Stoycheff, N, et al. "Early change in proteinuria as a surrogate outcome in kidney disease progression: a systematic review of previous analyses and creation of a patient-level pooled dataset." Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 26.3 (2011): 848-857. PMID: 20817671.
  19. Levey, AS., et al. "Proteinuria as a surrogate outcome in CKD: report of a scientific workshop sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation and the US Food and Drug Administration." American Journal of Kidney Diseases 54.2 (2009): 205-226. PMID: 19577347
  20. Stevens, LA., Greene, T, and Levey, AS. "Surrogate end points for clinical trials of kidney disease progression." Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 1.4 (2006): 874-884. PMID: 17699300.