Thyroid Cancer

Clinical Description 

The thyroid gland is a small, butterfly-shaped organ located in the front of the neck. It is a part of the endocrine system and regulates the levels of thyroid hormone in the body. 

Thyroid cancer occurs when cells in the thyroid gland become neoplastic (uncontrolled growth). Almost 37,000 new cases of thyroid cancer are diagnosed each year in the United States, with most patients between the age of 20 and 55. Women are three times more likely to develop thyroid cancer than men. This cancer is generally associated with an excellent prognosis, with most patients cured with relatively simple treatment.
Types of Thyroid Cancer Include: 
  • Papillary thyroid cancer
  • Follicular thyroid cancer
  • Medullary thyroid cancer
  • Anaplastic thyroid cancer

Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer

Most thyroid cancer is identified after finding a mass in your neck - either as a mass felt by you or your physician, or as an incidental finding on routine imaging (ultrasound, CT scan, MRI) done for other reasons. 

In the early stages of thyroid cancer, most people have no symptoms. As the cancer progresses, however, some people will experience difficulty swallowing, discomfort in the throat or neck, voice changes or hoarseness, or swollen lymph nodes in the neck. Some of these symptoms can also be due to non-cancerous conditions such as a goiter or a benign thyroid nodule. 

Risk Factors

The following factors may increase a person’s risk of developing thyroid cancer: radiation exposure (especially as a child) and a family history of thyroid cancer (especially in cases of medullary thyroid cancer).

How Thyroid Cancer is Diagnosed

The diagnosis of thyroid cancer often involves a combination of physical exam, ultrasound, and needle biopsy.

Ultrasound is commonly used to evaluate thyroid nodules and can often identify a nodule that is suspicious for cancer. A sample of tissue (needle biopsy) is then obtained and examined under the microscope. The biopsy is usually performed in the outpatient clinic as a thin needle is inserted into the thyroid nodule (fine needle aspiration biopsy). Depending on the results of the biopsy, surgery may be needed to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.

For patients with cancer, a radioactive iodine scan (RAI) is often done following surgery to determine whether thyroid cancer has spread to other parts of the body (diagnostic scan). During this test, a patient swallows a capsule that contains radioactive iodine. The iodine is absorbed by any remaining thyroid tissue and thyroid cancer cells. If there is persistent uptake of iodine following the surgery, this suggests that there is still some active thyroid tissue or thyroid cancer remaining. Those patients will then be treated with a stronger dose of radioactive iodine (single treatment/therapeutic dose). These decisions will be explained to you by your endocrinologist.

Staging of thyroid cancer is determined by the age of the patient, the size of the nodule or cancer, and whether the cancer has spread to sites outside the thyroid gland. Thyroid cancer spreads most often to the lymph nodes (common), lungs (uncommon), and bones (uncommon). If spread (metastases) has occurred, some patients may need more extensive surgery, while some patients can be managed with radioactive iodine.

Treatment Options for Thyroid Cancer 

Most people with thyroid cancer will be treated with surgery, although the specifics of the surgery depend on the type of thyroid cancer (papillary, follicular, medullary, or anaplastic), the size of the cancer, the presence or absence of lymph node metastases, and the patient’s age and general health. 

Most people with thyroid cancer have surgery. The majority of patients with low risk thyroid cancer can be cured with surgery and require little or no further treatment. The surgeon may remove all or part of the thyroid. The following are possible types of surgeries to treat thyroid cancer:

  • Total thyroidectomy. Removal of the entire thyroid.
  • Thyroid lobectomy. Removal of one lobe of the thyroid only. This is done in certain cases of low-risk papillary or follicular thyroid cancer. This decision will be discussed with you by your surgeon and/or endocrinologist. 

The following are common non-surgical treatments for thyroid cancer:

  • Radioactive Iodine Therapy. Many patients with papillary or follicular thyroid cancer will be treated with radioactive iodine following their surgery. Radioactive iodine therapy can destroy thyroid cancer cells that remain after surgery. This therapy is not effective for medullary or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, since they do not absorb iodine.
  • Thyroid Hormone Treatment. The thyroid gland has one primary function – it makes thyroid hormone (essential for normal functioning of many body systems). Patients who have their entire thyroid gland removed must take a daily thyroid hormone pill to replace the missing hormone. 

Programs + Services

Head + Neck Cancer Center

Visit the Head and Neck Cancer Center to find out more about treatment for all head and neck cancers, including mouth (oral) and throat cancer.
More information about programs and services

Thyroid Disease Clinic

The Thyroid Disease Clinic at Tufts Medical Center in Boston provides comprehensive diagnostic services and treatment for hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid cancer.
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Doctors + Care Team

Jacqueline T. Kung, MD

Jacqueline T. Kung, MD

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Accepting New Patients

LGBTQ+ Health

Virtual Appointments Available

Online Scheduling Available

Title(s): Director, Thyroid Disease Clinic; Endocrinologist; Assistant Professor, Tufts University School of Medicine
Department(s): Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Appt. Phone: 617-636-5689
Fax #: 617-636-8187

Thyroid disease, neck ultrasound, thyroid nodules, thyroid cancer, thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy

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Miriam O'Leary, MD, FACS

Miriam O'Leary, MD, FACS

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Accepting New Patients

Virtual Appointments Available

Title(s): Chair, Department of Otolaryngology, Tufts Medical Center; Otolaryngologist; Chair and Associate Professor, Department of Otolaryngology, Tufts University School of Medicine
Department(s): Otolaryngology
Appt. Phone: 617-636-3030
Fax #: 617-636-1479

Head and neck cancer, management of thyroid cancer and hyperparathyroidism, head and neck reconstruction including microvascular techniques, management of radiation-related complications

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Richard O. Wein, MD, FACS

Richard O. Wein, MD, FACS

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Accepting New Patients

Virtual Appointments Available

Title(s): Chief, Division of Head and Neck Surgery; Associate Professor, Tufts University School of Medicine
Department(s): Otolaryngology
Appt. Phone: 617-636-8711
Fax #: 617-636-1479

Head and neck surgical oncology, head and neck reconstruction, management of salivary and thyroid disorders, management of radiation-related complications, maxillofacial trauma, sleep apnea and sleep endoscopy

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Research + Clinical Trials

Sample Collection for Clinical Performance Evaluation of Elecsys Anti-TPO II

The purpose of this study is to collect blood samples for the further development of the diagnostic test Elecsys® Anti TPO II (anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody). This updated test is to aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases like Hashimoto thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. In blood of patients suffering from these diseases, antibodies like anti-TPO are generally elevated. In the This study, the patient's blood sample will be analyzed with the updated Elecsys® Anti-TPO II test. The anti TPO levels from blood of patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis or Graves’ disease will be compared with levels from blood of patients with non-autoimmune thyroid diseases (e.g. thyroid cancer) or autoimmune non-thyroid diseases (e.g. Type I diabetes mellitus). This comparison will help to understand how good the Anti-TPO test can aid in the diagnosis of autoimmune thyroid diseases.

Participation in this study will involve one visit and will last approximately 30 minutes. We expect approximately 660 people in the US will participate in the study in the US in accordance with applicable national laws and globally recognized principles. Participation in this study will involve one blood collection for research purposes.

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